Clopidogrel Pharmacogenetics

Geentic Study of Clopidogrel Pharmacogenetics

Evaluation of genetic variants that contribute to Clopidogrel pharmacokinetics



 Is still used worldwide as an antiplatelet agent in the treatment and prevention of atherothrombotic events?


Inhibits platelet aggregation, affecting platelets irreversibly for the remainder of their lifespan?

If not properly metabolized, may cause severe adverse cardiovascular effects?

The Problem…

icon-check-trombogeneHighly variable patient response to Clopidogrel;

icon-check-trombogeneAdverse side-effects of non-optimal Clopidogrel drug usage.

Why Clopidogrel pharmacogenetics matter?

According to the FDA, Clopidogrel pharmacogenetics can play an important role in:

icon-check-trombogeneDrug exposure and clinical response variability;

icon-check-trombogeneDefining the risk for adverse cardiovascular events associated with clopidogrel therapeutics;

icon-check-trombogeneGenotype-specific dosing or defining alternative anti platelet therapy.

Genetic Study of Clopidogrel Pharmacogenetics

Evaluation of the genotypes that affect Clopidogrel metabolism.

Providing an andequate antithrombotic therapy is important to prevent blood clots.

Reducing the adverse drug reactions by precribing the most adequate clopidogrel dose may prevent serious or life-threatening events.

It is recommended for:

icon-check-trombogeneIndividuals starting Clopidogrel therapy;

         icon-check-trombogeneIndividuals already taking Clopidogrel but experience adverse drug reactions;

           icon-check-trombogeneIndividuals with family history of adverse reactions to clopidogrel.

Benefits of Genetic Study of Clopidogrel Pharmacogenetics

1. Useful
Genetic Study or Clopidogrel Pharmacogenetics is a reliable test that distinguishes non-responsive or drug resistant patients.

2. Simple
A sample of blood or saliva is enough to perform the genetic test.

3.Risk Assessment

Defines the genetic risk of adverse cardiovascular events and platelet aggregation.



4. Personalised
Genetic Study of Clopidogrel Pharmacogenetics defines the Clopidogrel optimal dose therapy and/or recommends for alternative anti-platelet therapy.

5. Effective
Define drug exposure and clinical response variability.


Up-to-date genetic information.


Start improving the treatment with Clopidogrel today

(Only for registered medical doctors, register here)

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Clopidogrel Pharmacogenetics


Clopidogrel Administration issues

Being a prodrug, clopidogrel needs hepatic bioactivation into and active form (Clo-AM) in order to inhib platelet aggregation. CYP2C19 is an important hepatic durg-metabolizing enzyme and is responsible for the metabolic activation of clopidogrel. It is well established that clopidogrel`s metabolic activation can be impaired by genetic variants in CYP2C19 gene by concomitant medications that interfere with CYP2C19 action.

The clinical importance of CYP2C19 genotype affecting clopidogrel pharmacokinetics and pharmacodinamics has been extensively studied in the recent years. CYP2C19 genetic polymorfism have been shown to impair the metabolism of this antiplatelet drug. Loss-of-function polymorphisms affect the degree of platelet inhibition by decreasing Clop-Am levels, resulting in an increased risk of recurrence of major adverse cardiovascular events. Conversely, gain-of-function allels are associated with increased risk of bleeding.

Key protein and gene:

CYP2C19–Cytochrome P450, Family 2, Subfamily C, Polypeptide 19

CYP2C19 is a important hepatic drug-metabolizing enzyme and is responsible for the metabolic activation of clopidogrel.

Clopidogrel genetic painel

The Clopidogrel genetic test developed by HeartGenetics includes the evaluation of 3 genetic variants in CYP2C19 gene.

How Genetic variants are selected:


Our research is supported by peer review papers that have been published in the reference journals in the field.


All genetic variants have been validated in reference databases (HGMDP, NCBI-OMIM, NCBI- ClinVar, NCBI-Variation Reporter and Ensembl).


The knowledge in our databases was approved by internationally recognized medical geneticists and cardiologists.

International Guidelines

Genetic testing is recommended by several renowned international organizations, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium (CPIC)

According to the Food and Drug Administration:

The FDA issued a Boxed Warning about patients who do not effectively metabolize clopidogrel and therefore may not receive the full benefits of the drug. It is recommended the health care professionals consider the use of other antiplatelet medications or alternative dosing strategies for clopidogrel. It was also stated that CYP2C19 genetic testing could be useful to optimize drug therapy

HeartGenetics’ Clopidogrel Pharmacogenetics reports?


The Clopidogrel painel includes genetic variants associated to clopidogrel pharmacokinetics and relative risk of adverse cardiovascular events.


The used technology has a 99% of accuracy.

All evidences are supported by updated scientific knowledge and validated by medical doctors.


All results include supporting information for each genetic variant including scientific references to guide the interpretation of test results.

HeartGenetics reports follow the recommendations from the European Society of Human Genetics

European Society of Human Genetics.

Contact us here for a report example. 

Start improving the treatment with Clopidogrel today

(Only for registered medical doctors, register here)

Download Requisition Form: PT | EN

Go back to products  |  Download Product Sheet  |  Need further information? Contact us

  • [1] Food and Drug Administration webpage:

  • [2] JAMA. 2011. 306(24):2704-14. CYP2C19 genotype, clopidogrel metabolism, platelet function, and cardiovascular events: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
  • [3] Mol Biol Rep. 2011. 38(3):1697-702. Cytochrome P450 2C19 polymorphism is associated with poor clinical outcomes in coronary artery disease patients treated with clopidogrel.
  • [4] Circulation. 2010. 121(4):512-8. Cytochrome 2C19*17 allelic variant, platelet aggregation, bleeding events, and stent thrombosis in clopidogrel-treated patients with coronary stent placement.
  • [5]

  • [6] J Thromb Haemost. 2012. 10(2):199-206. The gain-of-function variant allele CYP2C19*17: a double-edged sword between thrombosis and bleeding in clopidogrel-treated patients.
  • [7] JAMA. 2010. 304(16):1821-30. Reduced-function CYP2C19 genotype and risk of adverse clinical outcomes among patients treated with clopidogrel predominantly for PCI: a meta-analysis.
  • [8] Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2013. 94(3):317-23. Clinical Pharmacogenetics Implementation Consortium guidelines for CYP2C19 genotype and clopidogrel therapy: 2013 update.
  • [9] Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2012. 92(4):414-7. Pharmacogenomics knowledge for personalized medicine.